Paul Henri Charles Spaak (25 January 1899 – 31 July 1972) was a Belgian socialist politician and statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Belgium (1938–1939, 1946 and 1947–1949), as the first President of the United Nations General Assembly (1946–1947), as the first President of the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community (1952–1954), as the first President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, then called the Consultative Assembly (1949–50), and as the second Secretary General of NATO (1957–1961). He received the Charlemagne Prize in 1957 and the 1978–1979 academic year at the College of Europe was named in his honor.
In 1956, Paul Henri Spaak led the Intergovernmental Conference on the Common Market and Euratom at the Château de Val Duchesse, where the Treaty of Rome was prepared to be negotiated in 1957. The conference resulted in the signing of the Treaty Rome on March 25, 1957, establishing a European Economic Community -CEE-.
|The then French President Charles De Gaulle|
The European Economic Community -CEE- was more important than other initiatives and thus expanded its activities. The first achievement was trading common prices for agricultural products in 1962, among members. That negotiation was consolidated under the name of Common Agricultural Policy. In addition, they managed to eliminate most tariffs on agricultural products to trade between countries of the European Community in 1968.
Map of first European Community 1952: The European Coal and Steel Community came into existence in July 1952. The Treaty of Rome creating a broader “common market” was signed five years later.
The then French President Charles De Gaulle opposed for fear of supranationality, and applied the "empty chair policy" whereby withdrew French representatives of European institutions until the French veto was established. Finally, he reached an agreement with the Luxembourg compromise of January 29, 1966 by which a gentleman's agreement that allows members to use the veto in areas of national interest was established.
The Merger Treaty came into operation on July 1, 1967. The Treaty merged the institutions of the European Coal and Steel -CECA- and -Euratom- Atomic Energy Commission within the European Economic Community, which already shared a Parliamentary Assembly and Courts. Collectively, they are known as the European Communities. Communities still had independent personalities although they have been increasingly integrated.
Future treaties will give new powers to the community beyond simple economic issues when member countries reach a higher level of integration. The ideal objective pursued by unionists, is to achieve political integration with a peaceful and united Europe.
The three pillars which constituted the European Union