jueves, 31 de diciembre de 2015

December 31: New Year’s Eve is celebrated every year on December 31, in the Gregorian calendar. It is a day when people celebrate the end of the year and receive the new year with joy.

Tradition to celebrate New Year’s Eve varies from one place to another and from one country to another.


According to tradition, during New Year’s Eve, families gather to dine together, to start the year with all family members. More and more people decide to celebrate this day in restaurants where you can enjoy a Christmas menu.

Dinner in any case usually copious and in many houses is very elaborate since around her family members in many cases much time they cannot share a meal together does come together. The dinner cannot miss the Christmas cakes, turkey, pork in some countries and spirituous liquors and Champagne.

Happy New Years Eve is the common greeting which is exchanged amongst people at midnight of 31st December, because the night of December 31st is known as New Years Eve, the night before New Year. In many countries New Years Eve is also known as Saint Sylvesters Day or Old Years Day, in the Georgian calendar. Happy New Years Eve is celebrated all over the world. To celebrate New Years Eve, people host New Years Eve parties, socialize amongst friends and family, dance and drink, and count down the last few seconds of the present year together. This is often followed by a breathtaking display of fireworks marking the end of the present year, and the beginning of a new one. New Years Eve is a festive holiday celebrated all over the world where each country and individuals arrange a unique display of fireworks as a tradition.

miércoles, 30 de diciembre de 2015

December 30: On December 30, 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was formed.

The Soviet Union had a one-party political system dominated by the Communist Party until 1990, and although it was a federal union of 15 subnational Soviet republics, the Soviet state was structured under a national government and a highly centralized economy.

Lenin speaking at an assemble of Red Army troops bound for the Polish front. Photograph taken in Sverdlov Square, Moscow, on 5 May 1920. This is the original photo with Trotsky and Kamenev standing on the steps of the platform; later versions produced under Stalin's administration had them removed.

The Russian revolution of 1917 that brought down the Russian Empire had as successor to the Russian Provisional Government, which was short-lived, because the Bolsheviks won the Russian Civil War and founded the Soviet Union in December 1922 with the merger of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic of Transcaucasia, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic.

The Russian republic was by far the largest of the 15 republics.

After the death of the first Soviet leader, Vladimir Lenin, in 1924, Joseph Stalin eventually won the struggle for poder and led the country through a large-scale industrialization, with a centralized economy and extreme political repression. In June 1941, during World War II, Germany invaded the Soviet Union, a country with which it had signed a non-aggression pact. After four years of brutal warfare, the Soviet Union emerged victorious as one of the world's two superpowers, along with the United States.

The Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies were involved in the Cold War, which was a prolonged global ideological and political struggle against the United States and its allies of the Western bloc; USSR finally yielded to the economic problems and internal and externos. during this period political unrest, the Soviet Union became the reference model for future socialist states.

From 1945 to 1991, the Soviet Union and the United States dominated the global agenda of economic policy, foreign affairs, military operations, cultural exchange, scientific progress including the initiation of space exploration, and sports (including the Olympic Games). In the late 1980s, the last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev tried to reform the state with his policies of perestroika and glasnost, but the Soviet Union collapsed and was formally dissolved in December 1991 after the failed coup of agosto. After that, the Russian Federation assumed its rights and obligations.

martes, 29 de diciembre de 2015

December 29: Today is the anniversary of the annexation of the Republic of Texas to the United States of America in 1845 and became the 28th U.S. State.

Boundaries of Texas as annexed, 1845

Anglo immigrants, mainly from the southern United States, began to migrate to Mexican Texas in the early 1820s at the request of the Mexican government, which sought to increase the sparsely populated land of its northern border.

The boundaries of the United States and neighboring nations as they appeared in 1843

The Anglo Americans soon became the majority in Texas and eventually became disillusioned with the Mexican authorities.

The state of Coahuila, which was part of Texas since 1824, approved a plan for the gradual emancipation of slaves in the state in 1827, angering many of the new settlers who had moved to Texas from USA and had lived in Mexico for about a decade.

James K. Polk of Tennessee, president-elect of the United States during the joint house Texas treaty debates.

For these and other reasons, (Manifest Destiny) Texas declared its independence from Mexico, which is at war with Mexico. In 1836, the fighting ended and Sam Houston became the first president of the Republic of Texas, elected on a platform favoring annexation to the United States.

A map, published in the Newark Daily Advertiser as the U.S. Senate was considering a Joint Resolution for the Annexation of Texas that had been adopted by the House of Representatives.

The citizens of Texas approved the new constitution and the annexation ordinance on October 13, 1845. US President James K. Polk signed the documents formally integrating Texas in United States on December 29, 1845.

lunes, 28 de diciembre de 2015

December 28: According to Galileo Galilei’s drawings, he observed Neptune for the first time on December 28, 1613. However, Galileo thougt that it was a star rather than a planet.

Galileo Galilei

The drawings show that Galileo observed Neptune on December 28, 1612, and again on January 27, 1613; on both occasions, Galileo mistook Neptune for a fixed star when it appeared very close (in conjunction) to Jupiter in the sky.

Historically it was thought that Galileo thought that Neptune was a blue fixed star, and therefore, that is why he has not been credited for its discovery.

Neptune is currently low in the southeastern sky around midnight in the constellation Aquarius. Created with Stellarium.

According to a new theory proposed by Australian researchers, Astronomer Galileo Galilei may have discovered Neptune in 1613 — 234 years before the planet was officially found.

Read more: http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/275582#ixzz3v9iLiRzW

domingo, 27 de diciembre de 2015

December 27: Today is the anniversary of Charles Darwin shipment aboard the HMS Beagle on whose journey began formulating his theory of evolution in 1831.

Route of the Darwin´s journey on H.M.S. Beagle

On December 27th, 1831, H.M.S. Beagle sailed out of Plymouth harbor in Great Britain. Charles Darwin became seasick almost immediately and started to have second thoughts about the voyage.

Darwin spent most of that time exploring the mainland, a total of three years and three months. The remaining 18 months were spent at sea.

The book, which has also been known as Research Journal, brings its exciting travel memoir as well as annotations scientific nature relating to biology, geology, and anthropology that prove the extraordinary powers of observation of the author.

Although the path of the HMS Beagle happened sometimes in the same places, Darwin scientific references ordered by places, rather than chronologically.

His journal represents the first entries that suggest ideas that later would lead him to write his theory of evolution by natural selection.

sábado, 26 de diciembre de 2015

December 26: Today is the anniversary of the first The Beatles’single album in the United States with two songs: “I Want to Hold your Hand” and “ I Saw Her Satanding There”, in 1963.

I Want to Hold Your Hand is a song by The Beatles written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney and credited to Lennon / McCartney. It was the first Beatles song to achieve great success in the United States. The single with which The Beatles arrived in America was released by Capitol Records.

The Beatles hit #1 for the first time in the US with “I Want To Hold Your Hand”. The British invasion is officially under way.
“Capitol Records had previously been unconvinced by The Beatles' prospects in America, and it took al Brian Epstein’s persuasive powers to convince EMI's Stateside counterpart that the group could be a hit.” (See: http://www.beatlesbible.com/1963/12/26/us-single-i-want-to-hold-your-hand/)

In the UK it remained first for five consecutive weeks. The single was published that this song was the best-selling band in the world, coming to add 15 million copies sold. It was also recorded in German under the title of "Komm, gib mir deine Hand".


“I Want to Hold Your Hand” was the first Beatles album record to be made using four track equipment It was recorded in October 17, 1963, in EMI Studios. Both songs marked the beginning of Beatlemania worldwide.


viernes, 25 de diciembre de 2015

December 25: Today is the anniversary of the first documentary celebration of Christmas in Aurelian Roman Empire in 274 AD.

Christmas is an English word used by Anglo-Saxons to refer to the birth of Jesus Christ and literally means Mass of Christ. December 25–Christmas Day–has been a federal holiday in the United States since 1870.

Christmas was first called the Feast of the Nativity. December 25 was not selected because it was the birth of Christ, or that was even close to it. It was selected because it coincided with the idolatrous pagan festival of Saturnalia - and this celebration should be examined carefully. In any case, we do not know the exact date of Christ's birth.

Though not exactly the same as Christmas per se, Saturnalia was a holiday celebrated by Roman's at around exactly the same time that involved giving gifts

According to The Democrat and Chronicle, Rochester, New York, December 1984: "The Roman festival of Saturnalia, from 17 to 24 December, moving citizens to decorate their homes with greenery and lights, and give gifts to children and the poor. The festival of December 25, natalis invicti solis, the birth of the unconquered sun, was decreed by Emperor Aurelian in 274 AD, as a celebration of the winter solstice, and a time (after) ... was Christianized as a day to celebrate birth of the Son of Light ".

Roman holiday of Saturnalia.

jueves, 24 de diciembre de 2015

December 24: Today is the anniversary of the foundation of the Ku Klux Klan terrorist organization in 1865.

Ku Klux Klan's emblem.

Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is the name adopted by several right-wing organizations in the United States of America, created in the nineteenth century, immediately after the Civil War, and which primarily promotes xenophobia, and the supremacy of the white race, homophobia, anti-Semitism, racism and anti-communism.

General Nathan Bedford Forrest became Grand Wizard, claiming to be the Klan's national leader. He was a Lieutnant General in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War.

Often, these organizations have resorted to terrorism, violence and intimidation as cross burnings to oppress their victims.

Three Ku Klux Klan members arrested in Tishomingo County, Mississippi, September 1871, for the attempted murder of an entire family.
The first incarnation of the Klan was founded in late 1865 by veterans after the Civil War, who wanted to resist Reconstruction.

Cross burning was introduced by William J. Simmons, the founder of the second Klan in 1915.

The organization quickly adopted violent methods to achieve their ends. However, there was a reaction that soon led the organization to decline, as the southern elites saw the Klan as a pretext for federal troops to be active in the Southern States.

miércoles, 23 de diciembre de 2015

December 23: Today is the anniversary of the occupation of Kabul, capital of Afghanistan, on December 1979, by Soviet forces.

Soviet forces invade Afghanistan on December 23rd, 1979

The Afghan War (1978-1992), also known as Russian-Afghan War, Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, was the first phase of widespread conflict in the Afghan civil war.

When the Soviet Union intervened in Afghanistan in December 1979, it set the stage for a decade-long quagmire, similar to the American War in Vietnam.

The conflict lasted between December 23, 1979, and February 15, 1989, when the armed forces of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (RDA) supported by the Soviet Army against insurgents Mujahideen, or Afghan guerrilla groups supported by numerous foreign countries, with the United States, who gave them vast quantities of weapons and money.

Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan | 1979 | The Russian Army Against the Afghan Insurgents.

The conflict is considered as part of the Cold War. The Cold War was a political, economic, social, military, informative and even sporting clash started after the Second World War, which origin is usually placed in 1947, during the post-war tensions, and lasted until the dissolution of the Soviet Union (beginning of perestroika in 1985, the Berlin wall fell in 1989, and coup in the USSR, 1991), between the Western-capitalist blocs led by the United States, and Eastern-communist, led by the Soviet Union. The reasons for this confrontation were essentially ideological and political.

UK discussed plans to help mujahideen weeks after Soviet invasion of Afghanistan | UK news | The Guardian.

martes, 22 de diciembre de 2015

December 22: Today is the anniversary of the reopening of the Brandenburg Gate on December 22, 1989, in Berlin, ending the separation of East and West Germany.

Berlin Wall: East and West Germans returning in West Berlin after reopening the Brandenburg Gate, on December 22, 1989.

The Brandenburg Gate is known worldwide as a symbol of Berlin. But it not so long ago was also a sign of German division: There was just opposite the Berlin Wall built in 1961.

Brandemburg Gate on December 22, 1989.

US President Ronald Reagan, right at the Brandenburg Gate at the foot of the wall, on June 12, 1987, urged the Soviet party leader: "Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall.

During the night of the opening of the wall, from 9 to 10 November 1989, countless people were encouraged to climb the Wall in the part that crossed in front of the Brandenburg Gate. However, the door had no official border crossings between the Wall.

For this it was very special when the Brandenburg Gate border crossing was established as recognized by the authorities on 22 December 1989. Thousands of people attended the ceremony.

lunes, 21 de diciembre de 2015

December 21: Mayflower is the name of the English boat that carried the first British separatists, known today as the Pilgrims of Plymouth to the New World who arrived at Plymouth Rock in Massachusetts on December 21st. 1620, under the leadership of William Bradfor.

Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall (1882).

Due to a series of problems on the ship, they were forced to return twice to repair shortly after sailing. In a third attempt, they finally left Plymouth on September 6, and were able to arrive on 11 November.

A harrowing scene of the the Mayflower at Sea, by Mike Haywood provided by the General Society of Mayflower Descendants.

The ship carried 102 people, not counting the crew. They were the first colonists to settle in the Massachusetts coast, forming the Plymouth Colony. Christopher Jones and several of his friends who became partners purchased the ship Mayflower for busness.

We should remember of the differences between the Puritans and the Anglican Church recently founded by Henry VIII in England. The Puritans, who were those who departed from Plymouth, applied an even more radical philosophy regarding the laws of the Anglican Church, even more fervently that Calvinists. First there was an attempt to retreat to Amsterdam in the Netherlands, but it was not quite right decision, and decided to return to Southampton.

"Embarkation of the Pilgrims," by Robert Walter Weir - William Bradford is depicted at center, kneeling in the background, symbolically behind Governor John Carver (holding hat) whom Bradford would succeed. Brooklyn Museum.

There were promised land (it is not known who and why) in New England and the September 16, 1620 would leave for there. Pilgrims sought to create a new Jerusalem and purify the Anglican religion and the evils that plagued.

domingo, 20 de diciembre de 2015

December 20: Vespasian became emperor of the Roman Empire on December 20th, from the year 69 until his death in 96; his imperial name in Latin was Imperator Caesar Augustus Titus Flavius Vespasianus.

Vespasianus. Plaster cast in Pushkin museum after original in Louvre. Cropped and color adjusted version of original image

Titus Flavius ​​Sabinus Vespasianus was better Known as Vespasian was the founder of the Flavian dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire from the year 69 to year 96. He was succeeded by his sons Titus and Domitian.

map of the Roman Empire during the Year of the Four Emperors (69). Blue areas indicate provinces loyal to Vespasian and Gaius Licinius Mucianus.

Vespasian descended from a family “ordo equester” that had reached senatorial rank during the reigns of the emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.

n aureus depicting Vespasian as Emperor. The reverse shows the goddess Fortuna.

Vespasian was appointed consul in 51, and won renown as a military commander, highlighting the Roman invasion of Britain, year 43, commanding the Legio II Augusta.

ction of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known as the Colosseum, was begun by Vespasian and finished by his son Titus.

He commanded the Roman forces who faced the rebellion of the Jews in the year 66 when he was about to besiege Jerusalem, the rebel capital, Emperor Nero committed suicide, plunging the Empire in a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors .

After the rapid succession and death of Otto Galbay and the rise to power of Vitellius the armies of Egypt and the provinces of Judea proclaimed Emperor Vespasian on July 69.

On his way to the imperial throne, Vespasian was allied with the governor of Syria Mucianus, who led the troops of Vespasian against Vitellius, while Vespasian himself took control of Egypt.

On 20 December, Vitellius was defeated and the next day Vespasian was proclaimed emperor by the Senate.