martes, 30 de junio de 2015

June 30: The Spanish conquistadors led by Hernan Cortes struggling to get out of Tenochtitlan in 1520.

Hernan Cortes

“The Night of Sorrows” of June 30, 1530, was a major event during the Spanish conquest of Mexico where Hernan Cortes and his army had to find how to flee the city of Tenochtitlan, Aztecs’ capital, after killing King Moctezuma II, who Cortes had already as a prisoner.

Cortes. The Conqueror

The name "La Noche Triste" (The Night of Sorrows) emerged from the pain of having lost all the treasures that were stolen from the Aztecs in the form of looting and aggravated theft. That is, the Aztecs stole all of the gold and silver Cortes had stolen from them.

A map of Tenochtitlan and its causeways leading out of the capital.

Moctezuma died, Cortes and Alvarado knew they were in a very precarious position. The rebellion of the Aztecs was swift and the Spaniards had to fly while shooting bullets to the air outside the island of Tenochtitlan.

Battle of The Sad Night

The Aztecs had damaged four of the eight dams and bridges to leave the island. The excessive greed of the conquerors to take charge more gold and silver they could carry weakened their flight away. Aztec army canoes arrived from all sides and many Spaniards drowned and others were killed in fierce fighting.

Tenochtitlán Map From The Memory Of Hernan Cortés. Museo del Templo Mayor.

Hernán Cortés returned for Pedro de Alvarado and found him severely injured. Even Cortes was injured, lost artillery and most horses. The saddest night for the Spanish conquest was over bathed in blood.

lunes, 29 de junio de 2015

June 29: Cao Pi died in 226 and his son Cao Rui happened to become the ruler of the Wei Kingdom, one of the three kingdoms that competed for supremacy in China.

A painting of Cao Pi and two ministers flanking him, by the Tang Dynasty artist Yan Liben.

Wei was one of the three states fighting for supremacy over China during the period known as the "Three Kingdoms" between the years 220 and 280. The other two states were Shu, towards west; and Wu, eastward.

Map of Chinese provinces in the prelude of Three Kingdom period (In the late Han dynasty period, 189 CE).

Wei's capital was established in Luoyang in the central plains of China. Luoyang is one of the cradles of Chinese civilization and one of the four great ancient capitals of China, the other three being Beijing, Nanjing and Chang'an.

The Three Kingdoms in 262, on the eve of the conquest of Shu.

Cao Cao, the father of Cao Pi, was who established the foundation of the kingdom Wei, at the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty; but it was his son, Cao Pi, who consolidated the kingdom.

After reigning seven years, Cao Pi became ill and summoned to his bedside to Sima Yi, Chen Qun Cao Zhen and Cao Xiu, whom he called for support for his successor Cao Rui.

 Cao Pi died with 40 years left a major mark on history as a poet despite his notorious military failures.

Cao Rui

domingo, 28 de junio de 2015

June 28: Today is the anniversary of the coronation of Alexandrina Victoria as Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1838.

King William IV died in 1837, and a young Victoria became queen of Great Britain at the age of 18 years old. Almost a year later, her elaborate coronation

The British monarch known as Queen Victoria was also subsequently crowned Empress of India, until her death, on June 22, 1901.

Poster for Queen Victoria's Coronation celebrations 1838.

Her reign went down in history as the "Victorian Era" during which the United Kingdom became the most powerful and extensive Empire in the history of mankind.

Queen Victoria inherited the throne because her father and his three brothers had died leaving no legitimate heirs. Therefore, at the age of 18, Victoria took the throne of the United Kingdom.

The Imperial State Crown is the most magnificent of all the Crown Regalia. It was made in 1838 for the Coronation of Queen Victoria

In 1840, Queen Victoria married her cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha with whom she had nine children who married nobles from different European countries. Among the nobility Queen Victoria was nicknamed as the "grandmother of Europe". The "Victorian era" was very rich in events for the expansion of the empire and its impact on the world.

Queen Victoria wearing Sir George Hayter's coronation portrait for the Queen

Since 1 May 1876, Queen Victoria used the additional title of Empress of India, until her death on January 22, 1901.

Her crown and coronation robes

Queen Victoria reigned for 63 years!

sábado, 27 de junio de 2015

June 27: The US President, Richard Nixon, visit to the Soviet Union to discuss politics, power and preventive actions, in 1974.

(Thursday, June 27, 1974; during the Watergate scandal) — U.S. President Richard Nixon and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev vowed to seek lasting world peace

Having made considerable progress in the last two years in relations between the US and the Soviet Union, President Richard Nixon embarked on a second trip to the Soviet Union in 1974. He arrived in Moscow on June 27 and was received with a welcoming ceremony by the crowds, then, a glitzy state dinner at the Grand Kremlin Palace.

Richard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev met in the resort town of Yalta, southern Ukraine, where they discussed a proposed mutual defense pact, bloating, and vehicles multiple independently targetable reentry known by the acronym MIRVs (A Multiple Independently targetable reentry vehicle).

President Richard Nixon talks with his national security adviser, Dr. Henry Kissinger, as they walk across the grounds of Klessheim Palace. Nixon and Kissinger met with Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky during a 1½-day stopover on their way to Moscow.

While Nixon considered proposing a ban treaty, he sensed that as president would not have time to complete it. There was no significant progress in the negotiations.

The MIRVs are ballistic missiles containing several warheads, each of which is capable of hitting the target at which the program will address and achieve several strategic destroy both sites. President Nixon's conversations with the Secretary General of the Soviet Communist Party, managed to start the detente between the two superpowers.

Nixon had approached Mao Zedong (Mao Zedong) previously to obtain a unified preventive policy to avoid is escalation in the Vietnam War, according to the Peace Accords in Paris and finally ended with the forced withdrawal of US troops . Communist North Vietnam invaded South Vietnam was unified and supported by China.

viernes, 26 de junio de 2015

June 26: The United Nations Charter is signed in San Francisco in 1945.

The UN Charter is the founding treaty of the United Nations, signed in San Francisco on June 26, 1945, by 50 of the 51 original members. Poland signed the Treaty two months later. It's actually a constituent treaty to which all members are obliged to respect and fulfill their items.

Peter Fraser signs the UN Charter, 1945

The Treaty states that the United Nations prevail over any other treaty, commitment or obligation, which is purchased by some of its members out of the obligations of the Charter of the United Nations.

UN Charter

In other words, there should be an international treaty that exceeds its obligations by signing the UN Charter. There are now 193 member countries of the UN, with the exception of the Vatican State who has chosen to be a permanent observer disenfranchised.


The Organization's fundamental principle of sovereignty and equality among all nations: a country one vote in the General Assembly.

Chairman of the Delegation from Brazil, signing the UN Charter at a ceremony held at the Veterans' War Memorial Building on June 26, 1945.

Chapter 5 of the Charter contains provisions that establish the Security Council with five permanent members: China, United States, France, Russia and the United Kindom. Besides, there are 10 attending members who are not permanently elected by the General Assembly to serve a term of two years, without the possibility of immediate re-election.

The Treaty emphasizes the contribution of its members with the maintenance of international peace and security. Furthermore supposedly it seeks "equitable geographical distribution", etc...

Birth Of United Nations 26 June 1945, Representatives of 50 countries sign the charter of the United Nations at a conference in San Francisco UN officially 

jueves, 25 de junio de 2015

June 25: Started the Korean War: North Korea invaded South Korea with the support of China and the Soviet Union in 1950.

On June 25, 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea by sea and land.

The armistice was signed in July 1953. History tells us that the Korean Peninsula was held by Japan since 1910. But, as Japan was the big loser of the Second World War, the Allies divided the peninsula using the 38th Parallel line.

Kim Il-sung, head of the communist state of North Korea supported by the Soviet Union and China, travelled to Moscow to arrange the invasion and pull the United States out of the peninsula. China was still in its war with the communist takeover in 1949. But Mao supported the communist invasion of South Korea, violating the line of the 38th parallel.

Parallel serving as the dividing line between two Koreas

At first, the Communists almost invaded the entire peninsula. Five days after the invasion, US President Harry Truman ordered respond to the attack and called allies in the United Nations. President Laureano Gomez of Colombia agreed to participate and sent to the Battalion Colombia, and there suffered 639 casualties, almost 15% of its workforce.

Argentina, Brazil and Mexico had agreed to participate, but when they realized that this was a confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union withdrew and did not have to send their children to be massacred by external causes!

Joseph Stalin, Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin (born with the name of Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili in Georgia)

Joseph Stalin, Harry Truman and Winston Churchill at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945. Truman wears his usual double breasted suit and bowtie.

The Korean War is important in the history of international relations because it is the first meeting of the "Cold War" between the two superpowers winners of the World War II that arose the bipolar world!

The Korean War cost more than $50 billion and 33,000 U.S. lives, plus another 110,000 or so were wounded. It also cost Truman politically. When MacArthur publicly disagreed with Truman over Truman’s decision not to invade China, the general was fired. MacArthur returned to a hero’s welcome in America, and Truman was pilloried as being soft on communism.

miércoles, 24 de junio de 2015

June 24: Today is the anniversary of the French First Republican Constitution in 1793, or The Constitution montagnarde focused on social democracy.

A constitution is a set of principles and rules agreed by a nation or people to be governed.

The Nation is the people who inhabit a country. And the state is the set of institutions that governs the people and lives of the people, instead of serving you.

The final text of the draft was submitted to the National Convention, which ruled France after beheaded King Louis XVI to the guillotine.

The Constitution was inspired by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789.

That constitution was submitted to a popular referendum vote male only. With very poor statistics, the adoption exceeded 80% of the vote. The Constitution was inspired based on the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789.

Those people who sat in the highest parts of the enclosure were called Les montgnards and ruled three years, between 1792 and 1795. The Constitution established the right to work, welfare, public education and public rebellion. In addition, it established the abolition of slavery linked to the Rights of Man and of the Citizen! This date is important because it sets the story in the First French Republic.

Actually, after the independence of the United States in July 1789, France was established as the Second World democracy.

Assemblymen stayed in the National Assembly which lasted from 1792-1795. The name Montagnards came from the fact that members of this group sat on the highest benches of the Assembly, while groups that sat at the bottom were known as "the Plain" (the Plaine) or "Swamp" (le Marais).

Acte constitutionnel du 24 juin 1793: The first Constitution or the Constitution montagnarde, focused on social democracy based on popular sovereignty.

martes, 23 de junio de 2015

June 23: International Business Machines -IBM- announces the separation of the business of Hardware and Software in 1969, which will be effective from January 1970. That is how the software industry began.

The software industry is composed of companies that develop, maintain, and publish electronic application systems, or software, that use different business models, primarily. The industry also includes software services, such as training, documentation, and consulting.

Programming Languages and Software Engineering (PLSE) Research at IBM has a vibrant global community and a long history that goes back to 1969.

The dominance that IBM had on the market for computers during the 1960s led to antitrust investigations by the Department of Justice United States, which filed a complaint about the US case against IBM in the US District Court Southern District of New York The January 17, 1969.

The lawsuit alleged that IBM had violated the Sherman Act Section (antitrust) in trying to monopolize the digital electronic market system of computers, and particularly computers designed for enterprise businesses.

Many people believe that a key event in the growth of the market for software products business was IBM's decision in 1969 to set the price of its software and services separately from the hardware.