|King Charles I|
Charles became king of England in 1625, when his father died, James I. They belonged to the absolutist monarchies who believed they had divine rights and belonged to hereditary thrones, by the grace of God. Charles was a firm believer in the "divine right of kings".
Although English Parliament was in charge of just debating laws and approve the budget for war, the English king decided to end this figure and govern absolutely, because he did not accept any argument. Perhaps his biggest mistake was underestimating the parliamentary cooperation. His determination in the belief on "Divine Rights", the king ignored the Parliament, which had been operating since "Magna Charta Libertatum" or "Magna Carta of freedoms" that negotiated the English king, John I, with the nobility, in 1215. The Magna Carta was signed in June 1215 between the barons of Medieval England and King John I. 'Magna Carta' is Latin and means "Great Charter". The Magna Carta was one of the most important documents of Medieval England.
During the seventeenth century there was a civil war in England known as the English Revolution, which took place in two stages: first, between 1643 and 1648, produced by the confrontation between advocates of an absolutist monarchical power and middle class with economic power, supporters of Parliament and led by MP and General Oliver Cromwell.
English Civil War - The Main Battles
Parliamentarians were victorious and sentenced King Charles I to death who was executed in the public square on January 30, 1649, horrifying Europe.
There was, then, a Republican interregnum between 1649 and 1660, during which Oliver Cromwell was proclaimed Lord Protector by a law called “the Instrument of Government”.