miércoles, 25 de marzo de 2015

March 25: France and Britain signed the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, supposedly the "Definitive Treaty of Peace."



Map of Europe in 1800

The Treaty of Amiens was held between the French Republic, His Majesty the King of Spain and the Indies, and the Republic of Batavia on one side; and his Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, on the other. Indeed, Napoleon and the British king, George III, "desirous of ending the calamities of war" laid the foundations of peace, on 1 October 1801 in London.


The First Kiss in these 10 years in the encounter of Britain and the Citizen François in 1803, by James Gillray

Napoleon appointed his brother Joseph Bonaparte, State Councilor, with the rank of plenipotentiary (with full diplomatic powers) for the lead talks on the final treaty with representatives of other contracting authorities.

Map of Europe in 1803

The Treaty of Amiens was signed on March 25, 1802, by which Britain and Ireland gave recognition to the French Republic. It is important to emphasize that this treaty ended the "War of the Second Coalition", temporarily, and established the goal of "peace, friendship, and good understanding" between the signatories, also temporarily. Indeed, it is clear that the Second Coalition was dismantled in the Battle of Marengo, and the signing of the Treaty of Campo Formio (today Campoformido, Northeast Italy).


Signing of the Treaty of Amiens (Amiens Town Hall)

Through the Treaty of Amiens, Britain withdrew from Egypt and gave some Caribbean islands (West Indies) to the Republic of Batavia (today Netherlandas) and yielded to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).


His Majesty George III, King of England

France withdrew from the Papal States, and became entrenched in French Guyana, northeast of South America; the islands of Malta, Gozo, and Comino, which had been taken by Napoleon in his campaign to Egypt, were returned to the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.


Joseph Bonaparte, by Luigi Toro. 


Britain required quid pro quo ("something for something" in Latin) in order to accept Napoleon´s request to British recognition of the three new republics.

First Consul Bonaparte, oil on canvas by Antoine-Jean Gros, c. 1802; National Museum of the Legion of Honor, Paris.