sábado, 11 de abril de 2015

April 11: The Treaty of Fontainebleau ends the War of the Sixth Coalition against Napoleon I and forces him to abdicate the throne in 1814, for the first time.



Napoleon’s abdication

In the War of the Sixth Coalition against Napoleonic France, between 1812 and 1814, the coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Sweden and many Germanic states with Great Britain ousted Napoleon from the German territories in 1813.


Treacherous Auguste de Marmont, Marshal of Napoleon;
portrait by Jean-Babptiste Paulin Guérin  

The following year, while Britain, Spain and Portugal invaded France across the Pyrenees, the Russians along with Austrian and Germanic allies invaded France, across the Rhine River. After the Battle of Paris, talks began to induce Napoleon to his abdication to the throne of France.

Fontainebleau's location

French Marshal Auguste Marmont betrayed Napoleon because he was bribed by the English when Napoleon and his troops went to help him out but Marmont´s forces retreated back and left the battle field towards Paris via Versailles Palace. That was the way Napoleon was defeated by Wellington´s forces and his allies.


Napoleon seys goodbye to Fonateinebleau

Marmont was convinced by the English to adopt a personal political role and so reached a secret agreement with the Allis against Napoleon. Treachery! Together with Marshals Mortier and Moncey surrendered their troops to the enemies as had been agreed.


The face of Defeat and the Sense of Betrayal  - Napoleon broods over the fall of Paris at Fontainebleau


The Treaty of Fontainebleau was an agreement reached and signed on April 11, 1814 in Paris by the plenipotentiary ambassadors of Napoleon and the allies of the Sixth Coalition.

"The Rise and Fall of Napoleon", cartoon drawn by Johann Michael Voltz following the Treaty of Fontainebleau – on the lower side is seen the map of Elba.


The Treaty has 21 articles based on the abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte to the throne of France. Both Napoleon and his wife Marie-Louise of Austria were allowed to retain their titles of emperor and empress, provided that they were not hereditary.

The Treaty established the island of Elba (in front of Tuscany, Italy) as a separate principality to be ruled by Napoleon, but dependent on France. However, Elba would has its own sovereignty with its own flag guaranteed by foreign states, even though, France was allowed to assimilate the island of Elba and provide its budget as well.