domingo, 19 de abril de 2015

April 19: The Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI issued the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 to ensure that his daughter Maria Theresa of Austria could inherit the crown of Austria and the Habsburg territories.

Charles VI in the regalia of the Order of the Golden Fleece;
painting attributed to Martin van Meytens

Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, had no male heirs. Therefore, he had to issue an edict to ensure that the Habsburg Dynasty could keep their realm, even though there were no males to inherit the Habsburg hereditary possessions, and that they could be inherited bay a daughter. As a matter of fact, Emperor Charles VI issued the edict of the Pragmatic Sanction on April 19 1713.

Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina or simply Maria Theresa became the only female Habsburg to rule the Austrian dominions as well as the last queen of the House of Habsburg. Her father died in October 1740, right after 27 years of issuing the Pragmatic Sanction to allow Maria Theresa to become Empress of the Holy Roman Empire.

The Empress Maria Theresa in 1759, by Martin van Meytens

She had a collection of titles: the sovereign of Austria-Hungary, Austrian Netherlands, Bohemia, Croatia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Mantua, Milan and Parma. Additionally, by marriage she was also Duchess of Lorraine, and Gran Duchess of Tuscany.

After Charles’ death, Empress Maria Theresa had to resort to arms to defend her throne that was attacked by a coalition of Prussia, Bavaria, France, Spain, Saxony and Poland, because they did not want to honour tha Paragmatic Sanction and started the War of the Austriasn Succession. The Empress Maria Theresa saved her crown but los Silesia to Prussia and Parma to Spain.