On May 13, 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico. The fighting lasted a year and a half. The Guadalupe-Hidalgo Treaty forced the sale of 3.1 million square kilometers (nearly three times the Colombian mainland). Mexico ceded territories of New Mexico and California which the US armies occupied immediately.
United States paid Mexico $ 15 million, and also assumed the Mexican debt to the private sector by $ 3.5 million (that is a total of $ 18.5 million over 3 million square kilometers!).
Additionally, Mexico accepted the loss of Texas and agreed that the national boundary was the Rio Grande. In short, the United States took over half of the territory to Mexico.
The US territorial expansion to the Pacific was a goal of President James K. Polk who firmly believed the doctrine of Manifest Destiny of USA by which the American nation was destined to expand from the shores of the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, because God wanted it!
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