viernes, 16 de enero de 2015

January 16: The Roman Senate gives Gaius Octavius Caesar the title of Augustus in 27 BC which starts the Roman Empire.

Statute of Augustus

Commonly called Octavius, was born with the name of Gaius Octavius within a wealthy family of the equestrian line. He was adopted by his maternal grandfather uncle Gaius Julius Caesar, who favored him to build relationships in Rome and its environs. With the assassination of Julius Caesar, Octavius managed to win favoring military and Roman soldiers for their good treatment and leadership. Along with Anthony and Lepidus, he formed the Second Triumvirate of Rome, a military dictatorship. Lepidus was killed and Anthony committed suicide after losing his last battle.

Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus. The yellow legend represents the extent of the Republic in 31 BC, the shades of green represent gradually conquered territories under the reign of Augustus, and pink areas on the map represent client states. However, areas under Roman control shown here were subject to change even during Augustus' reign, especially in Germania.  

Octavius came to have the majority of Roman military power represented in the Legions of Rome which was potentially threatening to the Senate in cases of senatorial opposition to Octavians. Republicans regained Rome principles by which political power resided in the Senate. But with so much power to have absorbed all the titles that gave Rome, including consular, the Senate resolved to please him extol and venerate. Hence, Senate granted him the title "Augustus" which literally means "Venerable". That honor led to his new name which became “Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus” who provided stability to Rome and achieved what is known in history as the Pax Augusta or more commonly as the Pax Romana.