miércoles, 21 de octubre de 2015

October 21: Otto IV was crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 1209 by Pope Innocent III.

19th Century impression of Otto IV.

Innocent III called the Fourth Crusade in 1202, becoming perhaps the most terrorist of all meetings with the purpose to make the papacy of Rome an absolute ruler of Europe. Otto IV was the only king of the Welf dynasty in Germanic territories. Electors met in Cologne to name Otto as successor of Henry VI.

Otto IV and Pope Inocent III shake hands.

However, many of the electors of the Holy Empire, located in the south chose Enrique's brother, named Philip, Duke of Swabia, as the new king in 1198, after receiving gifts and promises to get elected. Some decided to follow the suggestions of the king of England, Richard the Lionheart, and opted for the Welf dynasty. Henry, Otto’s older brother, was participating in the horrific 4th crusade. The only option was Otto who was elected and crowned in Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) by the Archbishop of Cologne.

The choice of Otto caused a conflict between France and England, because Philip was allied with the French king Felip II; while Otto was supported by King Richard the Lionheart, and after his death by his brother John of England. When France defeated England, Otto lost his support and eventually resurfaced civil war. Pope forced a settlement between the parties but Otto Felipe refused and eventually was killed.

Otto approached the house Saufen and married Beatrix, daughter of Philip. So he approached his election and coronation as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire to the Pope giving his full support to reconquer the Papal States which occuped at least a third of the Italian peninsula. Otto got tired of papal intrigues and decided that he would name the vacancies in the dioceses of their territories which caused the great dispute between the throne and the altar. The Pope Innocent III excommunicated Otto IV angered the November 18, 1210.