Sartre began his chair of philosophy at the Lyceum of Havre in 1931. Then he traveled to Spain and later to Germany on a scholarship from the French Institute in Berlin in 1933. There he witnessed Nazi expansionism of Hitler. He is linked to the Lyceum Pasteur in Neuilly in 1937, as professor of philosophy. The following year he published "Nausea", with great success and in 1939 published "The Wall". That same year, he began writing "Being and Nothingness", but he is called to the army to fight the Germans.
In 1943 he managed to publish "Being and Nothingness", a philosophical work which idealizes the possibility that people can be free morally and ethically, without accepting laws imposed by society or by the State. However, in choosing the concepts of behavior, each person is responsible. Perhaps he was influenced by the writings of socialist Claude-Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, and the anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon.
In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre was chosen as the tenth French citizen to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. But Sartre refused to accept any official recognition while he was alive.
He sent a letter to the Swedish Academy declining the recognition and stating that "the ties between man and culture should be developed directly, bypassing the institutions."