miércoles, 25 de noviembre de 2015

November 25: Stanislaw August Poniatowski was the last king of independent Poland, but was forced to abdicate on November 25, 1795, during the Third Partition of Poland. Estanislao was exiled to Russia.



Stanisław II August in coronation clothes.

The Polish division of territory subdivisions exercised by the Russian, Austrian and Prussian military powers took place during the second half of the eighteenth century. These dealings ended the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and ended the Polish sovereignty for 123 years.


First Partition: In 1764 Catherine dictated the election of her former favorite, Stanislaw August Poniatowski, as king of PolandLithuania.

The first partition of Poland was decided on August 5, 1772. Two decades later, the Russian and Prussian troops entered the Commonwealth again and the second partition was signed on 23 January 1793. Austria did not participate in the second partition.


Second Partition: Poland was not annihilated by the First Partition.

The third partition of Poland took place on October 24, 1795, in reaction to the unsuccessful Polish Kosciuszko uprising, a year earlier. With this third partition, the Community ceased to exist.

In the wake of the insurrection of 1794, Russia, Prussia, and Austria carried out the third and final partition of Poland-Lithuania in 1795, erasing the Commonwealth of Two Nations from the map and pledging never to let it return. Much of Europe condemned the dismemberment as an international crime without historical parallel. Amid the distractions of the French Revolution and its attendant wars, however, no state actively opposed the annexations.

Kościuszko Uprising (Polish: insurekcja kościuszkowska) was a violent uprising against the Russians and Prussians in Poland in 1794. The leader of the insurrection was Tadeusz Kosciuszko.


Andrew Thaddeus Bonaventure Kościuszko.