lunes, 9 de noviembre de 2015

November 9: Today is anniversary of the beginning of the Meiji Restoration when the Tokugawa Shogun (Great General) transferred power to the legal Emperor of Japan in 1867 who took the name of “Meiji” ("enlightened rule").

Review of Japanese Social Structure (Before Meiji Restoration)

The nobility of Japan, the daimyo, took the signature of trade agreements with the hated foreigners called "barbarians" to ally the Emperor Mutsuhito and force the resignation of Tokugawa shogun. This revolution is sometimes called the Meiji Restoration but most call it the Meiji Revolution. The period that followed is called the Meiji Era.

Emperor Meiji at age 27.

The Emperor Meiji, Mutsuhito, ended the samurai warrior class a term originally referred to the imperial guard, but with the advent of the feudal class, the term encompassed the entire military establishment, including the samurai warriors, feudal lords, or Daimyos, for the most demanding, and the shogun. In fact, the emperor’s name was Mutsuhito; but, after the revolution and restoration, he changed his name for Meiji.

The Meiji Restoration, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, Reform or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan´s political and social structure, and spanned both the late Edo period (often called Late Tokugawa shogunate) and the beginning of the Edo period.

Matsuhito began to modernize Japan. He built thousands of schools with a system of compulsory education since 1872. It created a new army and a modern army with compulsory service in 1873; He promoted the mining, manufacturing, transportation and banking. He invited American and European experts from different disciplines to teach Japanese and Western methods processes.

The government was modernized by a Constitution proclaimed in 1889, for which the Emperor became the head of state. The Emperor appoints senior government officials to respond to him. The Constitution provided for the creation of a cabinet headed by a prime minister; an adviser; and a parliament with two chambers.

In 1884, a new dignity or nobility was established through the creation of five ranges: Prince, Marquis, Earl, Viscount, and Baron.